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Python 3.11.0b1

Release Date: May 8, 2022

This is a beta preview of Python 3.11

Python 3.11 is still in development. 3.11.0b1 is the first of four planned beta release previews. Beta release previews are intended to give the wider community the opportunity to test new features and bug fixes and to prepare their projects to support the new feature release.

We strongly encourage maintainers of third-party Python projects to test with 3.11 during the beta phase and report issues found to the Python bug tracker as soon as possible. While the release is planned to be feature complete entering the beta phase, it is possible that features may be modified or, in rare cases, deleted up until the start of the release candidate phase (Monday, 2021-08-02). Our goal is have no ABI changes after beta 4 and as few code changes as possible after 3.11.0rc1, the first release candidate. To achieve that, it will be extremely important to get as much exposure for 3.11 as possible during the beta phase.

Please keep in mind that this is a preview release and its use is not recommended for production environments.

Major new features of the 3.11 series, compared to 3.10

Many new features for Python 3.11 are still being planned and written. Among the new major new features and changes so far:

  • PEP 657 -- Include Fine-Grained Error Locations in Tracebacks
  • PEP 654 -- Exception Groups and except*
  • PEP 673 -- Self Type
  • PEP 646-- Variadic Generics
  • PEP 680-- tomllib: Support for Parsing TOML in the Standard Library
  • PEP 675-- Arbitrary Literal String Type
  • PEP 655-- Marking individual TypedDict items as required or potentially-missing
  • bpo-46752-- Introduce task groups to asyncio
  • The Faster Cpython Project is already yielding some exciting results. Python 3.11 is up to 10-60% faster than Python 3.10. On average, we measured a 1.22x speedup on the standard benchmark suite. See Faster CPython for details.
  • (Hey, fellow core developer, if a feature you find important is missing from this list, let Pablo know.)

The next pre-release of Python 3.11 will be 3.11.0b2, currently scheduled for Monday, 2022-05-30.

More resources

And now for something completely different

The holographic principle is a tenet of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—such as a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon. First proposed by Gerard 't Hooft, it was given a precise string-theory interpretation by Leonard Susskind, who combined his ideas with previous ones of 't Hooft and Charles Thorn.[ Leonard Susskind said, “The three-dimensional world of ordinary experience––the universe filled with galaxies, stars, planets, houses, boulders, and people––is a hologram, an image of reality cited on a distant two-dimensional (2D) surface." As pointed out by Raphael Bousso, Thorn observed in 1978 that string theory admits a lower-dimensional description in which gravity emerges from it in what would now be called a holographic way.

The holographic principle was inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which conjectures that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might be expected. In the case of a black hole, the insight was that the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the hole might be entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. The holographic principle resolves the black hole information paradox within the framework of string theory. However, there exist classical solutions to the Einstein equations that allow values of the entropy larger than those allowed by an area law, hence in principle larger than those of a black hole. These are the so-called "Wheeler's bags of gold". The existence of such solutions conflicts with the holographic interpretation, and their effects in a quantum theory of gravity including the holographic principle are not fully understood yet.

Full Changelog


Version Operating System Description MD5 Sum File Size GPG
Gzipped source tarball Source release eda16babdfbab8aa7b8d4500d04e9935 25760554 SIG
XZ compressed source tarball Source release 9e0b8e46b67c53170549da7c3d874b15 19416160 SIG
macOS 64-bit universal2 installer macOS for macOS 10.9 and later 2f39e19c6695416da9cd4ebea7f90637 42040957 SIG
Windows embeddable package (32-bit) Windows 3b158eb5ecb403a21524be6ec18c2292 9568398 SIG
Windows embeddable package (64-bit) Windows bff67f4f54ad7a3bd23c1a1e8bbe6fca 10531677 SIG
Windows embeddable package (ARM64) Windows a53878c3d5f60bf1c4684df6e7fd2d5d 9777447 SIG
Windows installer (32-bit) Windows 34229f38e118756df10db26c45eaf361 23645024 SIG
Windows installer (64-bit) Windows Recommended 7279e850e602576115f3ff24f791483d 24791760 SIG
Windows installer (ARM64) Windows Experimental 2af6370cd85b52a696e86ce3f4ddfaf1 23952448 SIG