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PEP 246 -- Object Adaptation

PEP: 246
Title: Object Adaptation
Author: Alex Martelli <aleaxit at gmail.com>, Clark C. Evans <cce at clarkevans.com>
Status: Rejected
Type: Standards Track
Created: 21-Mar-2001
Python-Version: 2.5
Post-History: 29-Mar-2001, 10-Jan-2005

Rejection Notice

    I'm rejecting this PEP.  Something much better is about to happen;
    it's too early to say exactly what, but it's not going to resemble
    the proposal in this PEP too closely so it's better to start a new
    PEP.  GvR.


Abstract

    This proposal puts forth an extensible cooperative mechanism for
    the adaptation of an incoming object to a context which expects an
    object supporting a specific protocol (say a specific type, class,
    or interface).

    This proposal provides a built-in "adapt" function that, for any
    object X and any protocol Y, can be used to ask the Python
    environment for a version of X compliant with Y.  Behind the
    scenes, the mechanism asks object X: "Are you now, or do you know
    how to wrap yourself to provide, a supporter of protocol Y?".
    And, if this request fails, the function then asks protocol Y:
    "Does object X support you, or do you know how to wrap it to
    obtain such a supporter?"  This duality is important, because
    protocols can be developed after objects are, or vice-versa, and
    this PEP lets either case be supported non-invasively with regard
    to the pre-existing component[s].

    Lastly, if neither the object nor the protocol know about each
    other, the mechanism may check a registry of adapter factories,
    where callables able to adapt certain objects to certain protocols
    can be registered dynamically.  This part of the proposal is
    optional: the same effect could be obtained by ensuring that
    certain kinds of protocols and/or objects can accept dynamic
    registration of adapter factories, for example via suitable custom
    metaclasses.  However, this optional part allows adaptation to be
    made more flexible and powerful in a way that is not invasive to
    either protocols or other objects, thereby gaining for adaptation
    much the same kind of advantage that Python standard library's
    "copy_reg" module offers for serialization and persistence.

    This proposal does not specifically constrain what a protocol
    _is_, what "compliance to a protocol" exactly _means_, nor what
    precisely a wrapper is supposed to do.  These omissions are
    intended to leave this proposal compatible with both existing
    categories of protocols, such as the existing system of type and
    classes, as well as the many concepts for "interfaces" as such
    which have been proposed or implemented for Python, such as the
    one in PEP 245 [1], the one in Zope3 [2], or the ones discussed in
    the BDFL's Artima blog in late 2004 and early 2005 [3].  However,
    some reflections on these subjects, intended to be suggestive and
    not normative, are also included.


Motivation

    Currently there is no standardized mechanism in Python for
    checking if an object supports a particular protocol.  Typically,
    existence of certain methods, particularly special methods such as
    __getitem__, is used as an indicator of support for a particular
    protocol.  This technique works well for a few specific protocols
    blessed by the BDFL (Benevolent Dictator for Life).  The same can
    be said for the alternative technique based on checking
    'isinstance' (the built-in class "basestring" exists specifically
    to let you use 'isinstance' to check if an object "is a [built-in]
    string").  Neither approach is easily and generally extensible to
    other protocols, defined by applications and third party
    frameworks, outside of the standard Python core.

    Even more important than checking if an object already supports a
    given protocol can be the task of obtaining a suitable adapter
    (wrapper or proxy) for the object, if the support is not already
    there.  For example, a string does not support the file protocol,
    but you can wrap it into a StringIO instance to obtain an object
    which does support that protocol and gets its data from the string
    it wraps; that way, you can pass the string (suitably wrapped) to
    subsystems which require as their arguments objects that are
    readable as files.  Unfortunately, there is currently no general,
    standardized way to automate this extremely important kind of
    "adaptation by wrapping" operations.

    Typically, today, when you pass objects to a context expecting a
    particular protocol, either the object knows about the context and
    provides its own wrapper or the context knows about the object and
    wraps it appropriately.  The difficulty with these approaches is
    that such adaptations are one-offs, are not centralized in a
    single place of the users code, and are not executed with a common
    technique, etc.  This lack of standardization increases code
    duplication with the same adapter occurring in more than one place
    or it encourages classes to be re-written instead of adapted.  In
    either case, maintainability suffers.

    It would be very nice to have a standard function that can be
    called upon to verify an object's compliance with a particular
    protocol and provide for a wrapper if one is readily available --
    all without having to hunt through each library's documentation
    for the incantation appropriate to that particular, specific case.


Requirements

    When considering an object's compliance with a protocol, there are
    several cases to be examined:

    a) When the protocol is a type or class, and the object has
       exactly that type or is an instance of exactly that class (not
       a subclass).  In this case, compliance is automatic.

    b) When the object knows about the protocol, and either considers
       itself compliant, or knows how to wrap itself suitably.

    c) When the protocol knows about the object, and either the object
       already complies or the protocol knows how to suitably wrap the
       object.

    d) When the protocol is a type or class, and the object is a
       member of a subclass.  This is distinct from the first case (a)
       above, since inheritance (unfortunately) does not necessarily
       imply substitutability, and thus must be handled carefully.

    e) When the context knows about the object and the protocol and
       knows how to adapt the object so that the required protocol is
       satisfied.  This could use an adapter registry or similar
       approaches.

    The fourth case above is subtle.  A break of substitutability can
    occur when a subclass changes a method's signature, or restricts
    the domains accepted for a method's argument ("co-variance" on
    arguments types), or extends the co-domain to include return
    values which the base class may never produce ("contra-variance"
    on return types).  While compliance based on class inheritance
    _should_ be automatic, this proposal allows an object to signal
    that it is not compliant with a base class protocol.

    If Python gains some standard "official" mechanism for interfaces,
    however, then the "fast-path" case (a) can and should be extended
    to the protocol being an interface, and the object an instance of
    a type or class claiming compliance with that interface.  For
    example, if the "interface" keyword discussed in [3] is adopted
    into Python, the "fast path" of case (a) could be used, since
    instantiable classes implementing an interface would not be
    allowed to break substitutability.


Specification

    This proposal introduces a new built-in function, adapt(), which
    is the basis for supporting these requirements.

    The adapt() function has three parameters:

    - `obj', the object to be adapted

    - `protocol', the protocol requested of the object

    - `alternate', an optional object to return if the object could
      not be adapted

    A successful result of the adapt() function returns either the
    object passed `obj', if the object is already compliant with the
    protocol, or a secondary object `wrapper', which provides a view
    of the object compliant with the protocol.  The definition of
    wrapper is deliberately vague, and a wrapper is allowed to be a
    full object with its own state if necessary.  However, the design
    intention is that an adaptation wrapper should hold a reference to
    the original object it wraps, plus (if needed) a minimum of extra
    state which it cannot delegate to the wrapper object.

    An excellent example of adaptation wrapper is an instance of
    StringIO which adapts an incoming string to be read as if it was a
    textfile: the wrapper holds a reference to the string, but deals
    by itself with the "current point of reading" (from _where_ in the
    wrapped strings will the characters for the next, e.g., "readline"
    call come from), because it cannot delegate it to the wrapped
    object (a string has no concept of "current point of reading" nor
    anything else even remotely related to that concept).

    A failure to adapt the object to the protocol raises an
    AdaptationError (which is a subclass of TypeError), unless the
    alternate parameter is used, in this case the alternate argument
    is returned instead.

    To enable the first case listed in the requirements, the adapt()
    function first checks to see if the object's type or the object's
    class are identical to the protocol.  If so, then the adapt()
    function returns the object directly without further ado.

    To enable the second case, when the object knows about the
    protocol, the object must have a __conform__() method.  This
    optional method takes two arguments:

    - `self', the object being adapted

    - `protocol, the protocol requested

    Just like any other special method in today's Python, __conform__
    is meant to be taken from the object's class, not from the object
    itself (for all objects, except instances of "classic classes" as
    long as we must still support the latter).  This enables a
    possible 'tp_conform' slot to be added to Python's type objects in
    the future, if desired.

    The object may return itself as the result of __conform__ to
    indicate compliance.  Alternatively, the object also has the
    option of returning a wrapper object compliant with the protocol.
    If the object knows it is not compliant although it belongs to a
    type which is a subclass of the protocol, then __conform__ should
    raise a LiskovViolation exception (a subclass of AdaptationError).
    Finally, if the object cannot determine its compliance, it should
    return None to enable the remaining mechanisms.  If __conform__
    raises any other exception, "adapt" just propagates it.

    To enable the third case, when the protocol knows about the
    object, the protocol must have an __adapt__() method.  This
    optional method takes two arguments:

    - `self', the protocol requested

    - `obj', the object being adapted

    If the protocol finds the object to be compliant, it can return
    obj directly.  Alternatively, the method may return a wrapper
    compliant with the protocol.  If the protocol knows the object is
    not compliant although it belongs to a type which is a subclass of
    the protocol, then __adapt__ should raise a LiskovViolation
    exception (a subclass of AdaptationError).  Finally, when
    compliance cannot be determined, this method should return None to
    enable the remaining mechanisms.  If __adapt__ raises any other
    exception, "adapt" just propagates it.

    The fourth case, when the object's class is a sub-class of the
    protocol, is handled by the built-in adapt() function.  Under
    normal circumstances, if "isinstance(object, protocol)" then
    adapt() returns the object directly.  However, if the object is
    not substitutable, either the __conform__() or __adapt__()
    methods, as above mentioned, may raise an LiskovViolation (a
    subclass of AdaptationError) to prevent this default behavior.

    If none of the first four mechanisms worked, as a last-ditch
    attempt, 'adapt' falls back to checking a registry of adapter
    factories, indexed by the protocol and the type of `obj', to meet
    the fifth case.  Adapter factories may be dynamically registered
    and removed from that registry to provide "third party adaptation"
    of objects and protocols that have no knowledge of each other, in
    a way that is not invasive to either the object or the protocols.


Intended Use

    The typical intended use of adapt is in code which has received
    some object X "from the outside", either as an argument or as the
    result of calling some function, and needs to use that object
    according to a certain protocol Y.  A "protocol" such as Y is
    meant to indicate an interface, usually enriched with some
    semantics constraints (such as are typically used in the "design
    by contract" approach), and often also some pragmatical
    expectation (such as "the running time of a certain operation
    should be no worse than O(N)", or the like); this proposal does
    not specify how protocols are designed as such, nor how or whether
    compliance to a protocol is checked, nor what the consequences may
    be of claiming compliance but not actually delivering it (lack of
    "syntactic" compliance -- names and signatures of methods -- will
    often lead to exceptions being raised; lack of "semantic"
    compliance may lead to subtle and perhaps occasional errors
    [imagine a method claiming to be threadsafe but being in fact
    subject to some subtle race condition, for example]; lack of
    "pragmatic" compliance will generally lead to code that runs
    ``correctly'', but too slowly for practical use, or sometimes to
    exhaustion of resources such as memory or disk space).

    When protocol Y is a concrete type or class, compliance to it is
    intended to mean that an object allows all of the operations that
    could be performed on instances of Y, with "comparable" semantics
    and pragmatics.  For example, a hypothetical object X that is a
    singly-linked list should not claim compliance with protocol
    'list', even if it implements all of list's methods: the fact that
    indexing X[n] takes time O(n), while the same operation would be
    O(1) on a list, makes a difference.  On the other hand, an
    instance of StringIO.StringIO does comply with protocol 'file',
    even though some operations (such as those of module 'marshal')
    may not allow substituting one for the other because they perform
    explicit type-checks: such type-checks are "beyond the pale" from
    the point of view of protocol compliance.

    While this convention makes it feasible to use a concrete type or
    class as a protocol for purposes of this proposal, such use will
    often not be optimal.  Rarely will the code calling 'adapt' need
    ALL of the features of a certain concrete type, particularly for
    such rich types as file, list, dict; rarely can all those features
    be provided by a wrapper with good pragmatics, as well as syntax
    and semantics that are really the same as a concrete type's.

    Rather, once this proposal is accepted, a design effort needs to
    start to identify the essential characteristics of those protocols
    which are currently used in Python, particularly within the
    standard library, and to formalize them using some kind of
    "interface" construct (not necessarily requiring any new syntax: a
    simple custom metaclass would let us get started, and the results
    of the effort could later be migrated to whatever "interface"
    construct is eventually accepted into the Python language).  With
    such a palette of more formally designed protocols, the code using
    'adapt' will be able to ask for, say, adaptation into "a filelike
    object that is readable and seekable", or whatever else it
    specifically needs with some decent level of "granularity", rather
    than too-generically asking for compliance to the 'file' protocol.

    Adaptation is NOT "casting".  When object X itself does not
    conform to protocol Y, adapting X to Y means using some kind of
    wrapper object Z, which holds a reference to X, and implements
    whatever operation Y requires, mostly by delegating to X in
    appropriate ways.  For example, if X is a string and Y is 'file',
    the proper way to adapt X to Y is to make a StringIO(X), *NOT* to
    call file(X) [which would try to open a file named by X].

    Numeric types and protocols may need to be an exception to this
    "adaptation is not casting" mantra, however.


Guido's "Optional Static Typing: Stop the Flames" Blog Entry

    A typical simple use case of adaptation would be:

        def f(X):
            X = adapt(X, Y)
            # continue by using X according to protocol Y

    In [4], the BDFL has proposed introducing the syntax:

        def f(X: Y):
            # continue by using X according to protocol Y

    to be a handy shortcut for exactly this typical use of adapt, and,
    as a basis for experimentation until the parser has been modified
    to accept this new syntax, a semantically equivalent decorator:

        @arguments(Y)
        def f(X):
            # continue by using X according to protocol Y

    These BDFL ideas are fully compatible with this proposal, as are
    other of Guido's suggestions in the same blog.



Reference Implementation and Test Cases

    The following reference implementation does not deal with classic
    classes: it consider only new-style classes.  If classic classes
    need to be supported, the additions should be pretty clear, though
    a bit messy (x.__class__ vs type(x), getting boundmethods directly
    from the object rather than from the type, and so on).

    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    adapt.py
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    class AdaptationError(TypeError):
        pass
    class LiskovViolation(AdaptationError):
        pass

    _adapter_factory_registry = {}

    def registerAdapterFactory(objtype, protocol, factory):
        _adapter_factory_registry[objtype, protocol] = factory

    def unregisterAdapterFactory(objtype, protocol):
        del _adapter_factory_registry[objtype, protocol]

    def _adapt_by_registry(obj, protocol, alternate):
        factory = _adapter_factory_registry.get((type(obj), protocol))
        if factory is None:
            adapter = alternate
        else:
            adapter = factory(obj, protocol, alternate)
        if adapter is AdaptationError:
            raise AdaptationError
        else:
            return adapter


    def adapt(obj, protocol, alternate=AdaptationError):

        t = type(obj)

        # (a) first check to see if object has the exact protocol
        if t is protocol:
           return obj

        try:
            # (b) next check if t.__conform__ exists & likes protocol
            conform = getattr(t, '__conform__', None)
            if conform is not None:
                result = conform(obj, protocol)
                if result is not None:
                    return result

            # (c) then check if protocol.__adapt__ exists & likes obj
            adapt = getattr(type(protocol), '__adapt__', None)
            if adapt is not None:
                result = adapt(protocol, obj)
                if result is not None:
                    return result
        except LiskovViolation:
            pass
        else:
            # (d) check if object is instance of protocol
            if isinstance(obj, protocol):
                return obj

        # (e) last chance: try the registry
        return _adapt_by_registry(obj, protocol, alternate)

    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    test.py
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    from adapt import AdaptationError, LiskovViolation, adapt
    from adapt import registerAdapterFactory, unregisterAdapterFactory
    import doctest

    class A(object):
        '''
        >>> a = A()
        >>> a is adapt(a, A)   # case (a)
        True
        '''

    class B(A):
        '''
        >>> b = B()
        >>> b is adapt(b, A)   # case (d)
        True
        '''

    class C(object):
        '''
        >>> c = C()
        >>> c is adapt(c, B)   # case (b)
        True
        >>> c is adapt(c, A)   # a failure case
        Traceback (most recent call last):
            ...
        AdaptationError
        '''
        def __conform__(self, protocol):
            if protocol is B:
                return self

    class D(C):
        '''
        >>> d = D()
        >>> d is adapt(d, D)   # case (a)
        True
        >>> d is adapt(d, C)   # case (d) explicitly blocked
        Traceback (most recent call last):
            ...
        AdaptationError
        '''
        def __conform__(self, protocol):
            if protocol is C:
                raise LiskovViolation

    class MetaAdaptingProtocol(type):
        def __adapt__(cls, obj):
            return cls.adapt(obj)

    class AdaptingProtocol:
        __metaclass__ = MetaAdaptingProtocol
        @classmethod
        def adapt(cls, obj):
            pass

    class E(AdaptingProtocol):
        '''
        >>> a = A()
        >>> a is adapt(a, E)   # case (c)
        True
        >>> b = A()
        >>> b is adapt(b, E)   # case (c)
        True
        >>> c = C()
        >>> c is adapt(c, E)   # a failure case
        Traceback (most recent call last):
            ...
        AdaptationError
        '''
        @classmethod
        def adapt(cls, obj):
            if isinstance(obj, A):
                return obj

    class F(object):
        pass

    def adapt_F_to_A(obj, protocol, alternate):
        if isinstance(obj, F) and issubclass(protocol, A):
            return obj
        else:
            return alternate

    def test_registry():
        '''
        >>> f = F()
        >>> f is adapt(f, A)   # a failure case
        Traceback (most recent call last):
            ...
        AdaptationError
        >>> registerAdapterFactory(F, A, adapt_F_to_A)
        >>> f is adapt(f, A)   # case (e)
        True
        >>> unregisterAdapterFactory(F, A)
        >>> f is adapt(f, A)   # a failure case again
        Traceback (most recent call last):
            ...
        AdaptationError
        >>> registerAdapterFactory(F, A, adapt_F_to_A)
        '''

    doctest.testmod()


Relationship To Microsoft's QueryInterface

    Although this proposal has some similarities to Microsoft's (COM)
    QueryInterface, it differs by a number of aspects.

    First, adaptation in this proposal is bi-directional, allowing the
    interface (protocol) to be queried as well, which gives more
    dynamic abilities (more Pythonic).  Second, there is no special
    "IUnknown" interface which can be used to check or obtain the
    original unwrapped object identity, although this could be
    proposed as one of those "special" blessed interface protocol
    identifiers.  Third, with QueryInterface, once an object supports
    a particular interface it must always there after support this
    interface; this proposal makes no such guarantee, since, in
    particular, adapter factories can be dynamically added to the
    registried and removed again later.

    Fourth, implementations of Microsoft's QueryInterface must support
    a kind of equivalence relation -- they must be reflexive,
    symmetrical, and transitive, in specific senses.  The equivalent
    conditions for protocol adaptation according to this proposal
    would also represent desirable properties:

        # given, to start with, a successful adaptation:
        X_as_Y = adapt(X, Y)

        # reflexive:
        assert adapt(X_as_Y, Y) is X_as_Y

        # transitive:
        X_as_Z = adapt(X, Z, None)
        X_as_Y_as_Z = adapt(X_as_Y, Z, None)
        assert (X_as_Y_as_Z is None) == (X_as_Z is None)

        # symmetrical:
        X_as_Z_as_Y = adapt(X_as_Z, Y, None)
        assert (X_as_Y_as_Z is None) == (X_as_Z_as_Y is None)

    However, while these properties are desirable, it may not be
    possible to guarantee them in all cases.  QueryInterface can
    impose their equivalents because it dictates, to some extent, how
    objects, interfaces, and adapters are to be coded; this proposal
    is meant to be not necessarily invasive, usable and to "retrofit"
    adaptation between two frameworks coded in mutual ignorance of
    each other without having to modify either framework.

    Transitivity of adaptation is in fact somewhat controversial, as
    is the relationship (if any) between adaptation and inheritance.

    The latter would not be controversial if we knew that inheritance
    always implies Liskov substitutability, which, unfortunately we
    don't.  If some special form, such as the interfaces proposed in
    [4], could indeed ensure Liskov substitutability, then for that
    kind of inheritance, only, we could perhaps assert that if X
    conforms to Y and Y inherits from Z then X conforms to Z... but
    only if substitutability was taken in a very strong sense to
    include semantics and pragmatics, which seems doubtful.  (For what
    it's worth: in QueryInterface, inheritance does not require nor
    imply conformance).  This proposal does not include any "strong"
    effects of inheritance, beyond the small ones specifically
    detailed above.

    Similarly, transitivity might imply multiple "internal" adaptation
    passes to get the result of adapt(X, Z) via some intermediate Y,
    intrinsically like adapt(adapt(X, Y), Z), for some suitable and
    automatically chosen Y.  Again, this may perhaps be feasible under
    suitably strong constraints, but the practical implications of
    such a scheme are still unclear to this proposal's authors.  Thus,
    this proposal does not include any automatic or implicit
    transitivity of adaptation, under whatever circumstances.

    For an implementation of the original version of this proposal
    which performs more advanced processing in terms of transitivity,
    and of the effects of inheritance, see Phillip J. Eby's
    PyProtocols [5].  The documentation accompanying PyProtocols is
    well worth studying for its considerations on how adapters should
    be coded and used, and on how adaptation can remove any need for
    typechecking in application code.


Questions and Answers

    Q:  What benefit does this proposal provide?

    A:  The typical Python programmer is an integrator, someone who is
        connecting components from various suppliers.  Often, to
        interface between these components, one needs intermediate
        adapters.  Usually the burden falls upon the programmer to
        study the interface exposed by one component and required by
        another, determine if they are directly compatible, or develop
        an adapter.  Sometimes a supplier may even include the
        appropriate adapter, but even then searching for the adapter
        and figuring out how to deploy the adapter takes time.

        This technique enables suppliers to work with each other
        directly, by implementing __conform__ or __adapt__ as
        necessary.  This frees the integrator from making their own
        adapters.  In essence, this allows the components to have a
        simple dialogue among themselves.  The integrator simply
        connects one component to another, and if the types don't
        automatically match an adapting mechanism is built-in.

        Moreover, thanks to the adapter registry, a "fourth party" may
        supply adapters to allow interoperation of frameworks which
        are totally unaware of each other, non-invasively, and without
        requiring the integrator to do anything more than install the
        appropriate adapter factories in the registry at start-up.

        As long as libraries and frameworks cooperate with the
        adaptation infrastructure proposed here (essentially by
        defining and using protocols appropriately, and calling
        'adapt' as needed on arguments received and results of
        call-back factory functions), the integrator's work thereby
        becomes much simpler.

        For example, consider SAX1 and SAX2 interfaces: there is an
        adapter required to switch between them.  Normally, the
        programmer must be aware of this; however, with this
        adaptation proposal in place, this is no longer the case --
        indeed, thanks to the adapter registry, this need may be
        removed even if the framework supplying SAX1 and the one
        requiring SAX2 are unaware of each other.


    Q:  Why does this have to be built-in, can't it be standalone?

    A:  Yes, it does work standalone.  However, if it is built-in, it
        has a greater chance of usage.  The value of this proposal is
        primarily in standardization: having libraries and frameworks
        coming from different suppliers, including the Python standard
        library, use a single approach to adaptation.  Furthermore:

        0.  The mechanism is by its very nature a singleton.

        1.  If used frequently, it will be much faster as a built-in.

        2.  It is extensible and unassuming.

        3.  Once 'adapt' is built-in, it can support syntax extensions
            and even be of some help to a type inference system.


    Q:  Why the verbs __conform__ and __adapt__?

    A:  conform, verb intransitive
            1. To correspond in form or character; be similar.
            2. To act or be in accord or agreement; comply.
            3. To act in accordance with current customs or modes.

        adapt, verb transitive
            1. To make suitable to or fit for a specific use or
               situation.

        Source:  The American Heritage Dictionary of the English
                 Language, Third Edition


Backwards Compatibility

    There should be no problem with backwards compatibility unless
    someone had used the special names __conform__ or __adapt__ in
    other ways, but this seems unlikely, and, in any case, user code
    should never use special names for non-standard purposes.

    This proposal could be implemented and tested without changes to
    the interpreter.


Credits

    This proposal was created in large part by the feedback of the
    talented individuals on the main Python mailing lists and the
    type-sig list.  To name specific contributors (with apologies if
    we missed anyone!), besides the proposal's authors: the main
    suggestions for the proposal's first versions came from Paul
    Prescod, with significant feedback from Robin Thomas, and we also
    borrowed ideas from Marcin 'Qrczak' Kowalczyk and Carlos Ribeiro.

    Other contributors (via comments) include Michel Pelletier, Jeremy
    Hylton, Aahz Maruch, Fredrik Lundh, Rainer Deyke, Timothy Delaney,
    and Huaiyu Zhu.  The current version owes a lot to discussions
    with (among others) Phillip J. Eby, Guido van Rossum, Bruce Eckel,
    Jim Fulton, and Ka-Ping Yee, and to study and reflection of their
    proposals, implementations, and documentation about use and
    adaptation of interfaces and protocols in Python.


References and Footnotes

    [1] PEP 245, Python Interface Syntax, Pelletier
        http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0245/

    [2] http://www.zope.org/Wikis/Interfaces/FrontPage

    [3] http://www.artima.com/weblogs/index.jsp?blogger=guido

    [4] http://www.artima.com/weblogs/viewpost.jsp?thread=87182

    [5] http://peak.telecommunity.com/PyProtocols.html


Copyright

    This document has been placed in the public domain.



Source: https://hg.python.org/peps/file/tip/pep-0246.txt