Python is one of those languages that fills many roles. It can be used for prototyping, for writing actual production code, as an interface between software components, or as a handy tool for easily writing quick scripts. For many of these purposes, cryptography can be a useful capability. Some relevant modules come with the standard Python distribution; there's already a module supporting the MD5 hash algorithm, and there's a demo implementing the RSA public key system. However, the core distribution can't support everything, or it would have to come on its own CD-ROM. The Python Cryptography Toolkit is a collection of extension modules for Python. One part of the Toolkit is a number of different algorithms. The list includes most of the common ones:
An important design criterion was that, assuming the Python code to be carefully written, it should be trivial to replace one algorithm with another. To this end, modules that implement a particular class of algorithm share identical interfaces, and variables parameterizing the module's characteristics are available to help in programming portably.
Encryption algorithms transform their input data (called plaintext) in some way that is dependent on a variable key, producing ciphertext; this transformation can easily be reversed, if (and, hopefully, only if) one knows the key. The key can be varied by the user or application, chosen from some very large space of possible keys.
For block private-key encryption, the
new() function is called
with the key and an encryption mode parameter. Block algorithms operate
on fixed chunks of plaintext, usually 8 or 16 bytes. In Electronic
Codebook (ECB) mode, each block is encrypted independently of each
other. This is the fastest mode, but long strings of repeated
characters in the plaintext encrypt to repeating blocks, which may be
helpful to an adversary. In the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) and Cipher
Feedback (CFB) modes, plaintext is XORed with the previous ciphertext;
this breaks up any such repeating patterns.
As an example, let us encrypt a horrifying message:
>>> import des >>> obj=des.new('abcdefgh', des.ECB) >>> plain="Guido van Rossum is a space alien." >>> len(plain) 34 >>> obj.encrypt(plain) Traceback (innermost last): File "
", line 1, in ? ValueError: Strings for DES must be a multiple of 8 in length >>> ciph=obj.encrypt(plain+'XXXXXX') >>> ciph '\021,\343Nq\214DY\337T\342pA\372\255\311s\210\363,\300j\330\250\312\347\342I\3215w\03561\303dgb/\006' >>> obj.decrypt(ciph) 'Guido van Rossum is a space alien.XXXXXX'
Hash functions produce short "fingerprints" of arbitrary data. Unlike simple checksums, it is very difficult to find two messages that produce the same hash value, or to modify a message without changing the resulting hash value. Hash functions can be used as checksums, or as part of a digital signature system.
>>> import md5 >>> obj=md5.new() >>> obj.digest() '\324\035\214\331\217\000\262\004\351\200\011\230\354\370B~' >>> obj.update("This is a test message for a hashing function.") >>> obj.digest() 'F\315\344~\032\234\227\2627\276\366d\255\262%r' >>> obj.update('\000') >>> obj.digest() '\222?:\262g\252\255\023?w\314\305~\374=6'
Public-key cryptography uses two keys; one encrypts, one decrypts. The public key encrypts data, producing ciphertext that can only be decrypted by the private key, which is only known to the legitimate owner (we hope). The public key can then be listed in a directory or handed out to correspondents, who can then send the owner secure messages without having to arrange a key beforehand. Also, digital signatures can be created by decrypting data with the private key; anyone can then encrypt the data with the corresponding public key and verify that the signature and the message match. The PCT allows both the generation and use of various public-key systems.
As an example, let us generate an RSA private key to sign a text string
plaintext. (Actually, we will sign a hash of the plaintext.)
randfunc() is a random number generation (not shown) function
that accepts a single integer parameter N, and returns an
N-byte string of random data; it's used in generating the prime
numbers required for an RSA key. A class for cryptographically strong
random number generation is provided with the Toolkit, or you can
implement your own technique.
>>> import md5, RSA >>> RSAkey=RSA.generate(384, randfunc) >>> hash=md5.new(plaintext).digest() >>> signature=RSAkey.sign(hash, "") >>> signature # Print what an RSA sig looks like--you don't really care. ('\021\317\313\336\264\315' ...,) >>> RSAkey.validate(hash, signature) # This sig will check out 1 >>> RSAkey.validate(hash[:-1], signature)# This sig will fail 0
MD4, and everything will work
The PGP module is only partially implemented; currently, public or private PGP keys can read from a file or a string, and be written out again. Message support is not yet implemented, but the module is useful for manipulating keyrings; for example, a simple script to alphabetically sort PGP keyrings by user ID is included with the Toolkit.
In future, adding algorithms will be of less importance in development. There are two classes of cryptographic algorithms: the innumerable ones that are proposed, and the few ones that are actually used. New algorithms are constantly being invented, but relatively few of them become part of the security engineer's toolchest, and there's no point in trying to implement every single one of them. There are a few that should still be implemented: the only one remaining on my list at this point is the Haval hashing algorithm.
Afterwards, I will change my focus to optimizing and clarifying the existing C and Python code, and implementing some interesting protocols. Also, most of the implementations have used existing code as much as possible. However, some of that code comes with annoying conditions that forbid commercial use; I will begin the slow work of reimplementing algorithms and placing them in the public domain. (Specifically, MD2 and MD4 are problems in this respect; MD5 is a public-domain implementation by Colin Plumb.)
There are many protocols that could be implemented. As the use of the Internet for commercial purposes spreads, network security becomes more important as more and more financial data and proprietary information is transmitted across the network. There is no single standard for secure Internet communications yet. Instead, there are various standards being proposed, and it is probably best that Python be able to use them all. I am not currently planning to work on any of the following, though I'd certainly be willing to provide assistance.
There are also Python-specific applications for cryptography. One of the demo scripts included with the Toolkit implements a crude version of a secure import statement. Armed with a public key and a list of signatures (which are assumed to be magically available and known to be correct), any compiled module is run through a hash function before being imported. The hash value is then checked against the corresponding signature; if it fails, an ImportError exception is raised. This has obvious relevance to implementing distributed systems and agents in Python.
The next release of the Toolkit is 0.0.3, and will include the Digital Signature Algorithm and improved documentation, plus some other goodies. Hopefully, the encumbered modules will have been reimplemented as well. I will also tackle implementing the issues on my wish list, which leads naturally to...
There are some enhancements to Python that would improve the Toolkit by making it simpler or faster.
structmodule does not yet allow specifying the byte order, nor does it support character arrays, C strings, or converting a string to a Python long integer. This would really speed up the PGP module, and might make it almost as fast as PGP itself, which is written purely in C.